Ground Surveys consist of Systematic Geological Mapping (SGM) at scale 1:50,000, Specialized thematic mapping (STM) at scale 1:25,000, National
Geochemical Mapping (NGCM) at scale 1:50,000 and National Geophysical Mapping (NGPM) to carry out the land gravity and magnetic surveys at
scale 1:50,000. SGM is the most fundamental and basic mapping programme adopted by Geological Survey of India in last few decades through which.
98.52% of the total mappable area of the country has been covered.
Marine and Coastal surveys (M&CS) are carried out both in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and Territorial Waters (TW) along the East and West Coasts
of India and around Andaman Islands. The aim is not only to discover the undersea economic minerals, but also to unravel the evolutionary history of
formation of the seabed developed under the influence of various dynamic processes operative on different scales in different parts of the globe.
Multisensor Airborne Geophysical surveys are carried out by engaging Twin Otter Airborne Survey System (TOASS) and Heliborne Geophysical Survey System
(HGSS) as a significant aid in exploring mineral resources, particularly base metals. Hyperspectral (HYPERION) Remote Sensing is being used in GSI with
an objective to utilize the spectral response curve (spectral signature) of different alteration minerals like clay, iron minerals and carbonates for
their discrimination on the basis of absorption features recorded in the spectra.